G2 Cloud Likely Contains White Dwarf Star: Luminosity Unchanged


On May 2nd, astronomers A. Ghez, et al. reported on observations of the G2 Cloud which they conducted on March 19th and 20th using the Keck Infrared Telescope; see Astronomer’s Telegram, Report 6110.  They note that they were observing at a time the cloud should have been near its orbital periapse (closest approach to the Galactic core), and found the cloud to be still intact.  From this they concluded that the G2 cloud must contain an embedded star otherwise it could not have survived intact in the presence of the very strong gravitational tidal forces being exerted on the cloud as well as the fierce wind being put out by the galactic core.  In a recent article posted in the Scientific American blog, Seth Fletcher wrote:

“Before the observation, Ghez and her colleagues took bets on the outcome. “If it’s a dust cloud, it won’t be there,” Ghez said, because it will have been torn to pieces. “If it’s a star, it will.”  Both nights, there it was. “We saw G2, clear as day,” Ghez said…  ”The simple gas cloud hypothesis can be ruled out,” she said.

Ghez also suggests that the G2 cloud may contain a binary star system.  So here we see that she concurs with the suggestion that there may actually be two stars hidden within G2.  Ghez was one of the 73 astronomers that I had written to back in January suggesting this idea.  She also noted that most theories have predicted that the G2 cloud should have gotten brighter as it got closer to the Galactic core, but observations have instead shown that hasn’t happened.  Speaking of the G2 cloud she said, “Not only do you see it and it’s compact, but it hasn’t changed brightness at all.”  “We’re trying to come up with a theory that passes Occam’s Razor.”

According to astronomer Stefan Gillessen, the fact that the cloud did not brighten noticeably as it approached the galactic core casts doubt on a theory that a faint star could be hidden within it, because such a star, if present, would heat up as the cloud drew closer to the core and would give off more hot, bright gas through evaporation; see article posted on the Daily Galaxy news website.   Gillessen said, “What we have observed so far is completely consistent with a simple gas cloud,” basing his conclusion on the constancy of the cloud’s constant luminosity.  But, according to the Daily Galaxy theoretical astrophysicist Avi Loeb, who has championed the star theory, “isn’t ready to give up on it yet. He points out that the cloud has so far remained intact and follows an elliptical orbit, as would be expected for a star”.  So, Loeb agrees with Ghez that the cloud should contain a star.

As we see, astronomers are confused by the G2 cloud observational results.  So how do we resolve this paradox, a cloud that stays together as though it were being continuously generated by a star’s stellar wind, and yet not contain a star that would brighten as it approached the core?  In my opinion, the paradox may be resolved if the embedded star is not a main sequence star, but rather is a white dwarf, i.e., a bare stellar core.  There are several reasons why a white dwarf would not be expected to brighten as it approached the Galaxy’s supermassive core.

1) A white dwarf generates a very deep gravity potential well.  Its surface gravity potential would be around 250 times greater than that of the Sun and its average internal gravity potential would be around 1000 times greater than the Sun’s surface gravity potential.  By comparison, when the G2 cloud was at its pericenter distance of about 150 AU from the Galaxy’s core Mother star, its gravity potential would be only around 270 times the Sun’s surface gravity potential.  This would deepen the white dwarf’s self-generated gravity potential well causing it to be about about 25% deeper when the white dwarf was at pericenter.  This would result in a comparable 25% increase in the star’s overall genic energy production which is far less than the more than 20 fold increase in luminosity expected due to the rise in genic energy if the star were instead a one solar mass star, as discussed in last year’s news posting.

2) A second reason why a white dwarf would not brighten as much is that it has a much smaller cross section than a main sequence star.  White dwarfs are typically two percent the diameter of the Sun, hence less than a thousandth of the Sun’s cross sectional area.  Consequently, any cosmic ray heating of its surface by the Galactic core cosmic ray wind would be over a thousand fold less, thereby producing a negligible contribution to any luminosity increase.

3) A third reason why a white dwarf would not brighten as much is because tidal forces exerted on it by the Galactic core would be smaller in proportion to its smaller diameter.  Hence heating due to tidal forces would be over a thousand fold less than those acting on a main sequence star, making such tidal heating effects also negligible.

Hence, for all these reasons, a white dwarf would be expected to maintain an almost constant luminosity as it approached the Galactic core.  Accordingly, any mass loss that the white dwarf was undergoing would also not rise much.  Hence the size and density of the gas cloud the star was generating would show little change as G2 approached pericenter.  Most of the infrared luminosity of the G2 cloud is believed to come from the cloud’s interaction with the Galactic core’s cosmic ray and gas wind, and not from the radiation of  its embedded star.  Hence the cloud would expect to show relatively little change in luminosity.

 Perhaps the reason why astronomers have not considered the possibility of this star being a white dwarf is because standard astrophysical theory assumes that a white dwarf is either a dead remnant or cooling off core that has already expelled its atmosphere.  Yet there are white dwarfs that are seen to be actively expelling a strong stellar wind.  One example is the hot DA type white dwarf known as EGB 6 which has an M type red dwarf companion star (M ~ 0.05 to 0.5 solar masses) orbiting it at a distance of about 95 AU away.  This binary is seen to be surrounded by a compact emission nebula (CEN) estimated to be about 80 AU in diameter, in turn surrounded by a 7 light-year-diameter planetary nebula; see image at the top of this posting.  Observations indicate that in order to explain the outflowing gas in this nebula its central white dwarf and companion must be losing mass at the rate of between 10-9 to 10-5 solar masses per year; see paper by Liebert, et al. (2013).   Liebert et al. hesitatingly attribute this wind to the white dwarf primary since, according to standard astrophysical theory, such a stellar core is supposed to already have ejected its atmosphere over 105 years earlier and hence should show no mass loss activity.  Subquantum kinetics, on the other hand, predicts that hot white dwarfs are active matter creation centers and also heat themselves at a prodigious rate from internally generated genic energy.  Hence mass loss rates in the observed range are entirely expected in these hotter more active white dwarfs.  So it is entirely possible that the G2 cloud could be generated by a central white dwarf.  This mass loss rate for EGB 6 compares to the rate of 4 X 10-8 solar masses per year that Scoville and Burkert have estimated for the mass loss from the star hypothesized to be embedded in the G2 cloud and the diameter of its compact emission nebula is approximately the size of the G2 cloud emission nebula.

The white dwarf hypothesized here to lie within G2 may not be a solitary star.  It could be surrounded by a jovian planet or brown dwarf star.  A brown dwarf is sufficiently small that any increase of its internal luminosity resulting from its pericenter passage of the Galactic core would be masked by the more or less constant emission of the white dwarf primary.  White dwarfs have been seen in binary association with a brown dwarf, as in the case of NLT T 5306 whose brown dwarf secondary is estimated to have a mass of > 0.05 solar masses, or CSS 21055 which is estimated to have a brown dwarf  of between 0.03 and 0.07 solar masses (Steele, et al. 2012).

It is estimated that around 0.5% of the white dwarf population are accompanied by brown dwarfs.  We may roughly assume that an equal percentage of white dwarfs are orbited by planets.  Consequently, if the G2 cloud contains a white dwarf primary star instead of a main sequence star as astronomers previously hypothesized, then there is probability of only about 1% that it will have a binary companion (planet or brown dwarf).  This is far smaller than the percentage of 40% to 80% that we were previously suggesting on the assumption that G2′s embedded star is a main sequence star of mass 1 to 10 solar masses.  Hence the chance of a companion being separated and ultimately crashing onto the galactic core is about 50 fold less than the 3% to 8% chance that we had previously estimated.  Moreover in a subsequent posting, we will discuss a new computer simulation study that indicates that the G2 cloud’s present orbital trajectory is such that, even if the cloud did contain a binary system, it is extremely unlikely that the Galactic core would be able to capture and consume the companion body.  Hence the risk of a superwave occurring within the next year or two is significantly reduced. 

16 Responses to G2 Cloud Likely Contains White Dwarf Star: Luminosity Unchanged

  1. Maria says:

    I think I’m a contactee, though if asked to define that with certainty I’d fall short. It’s difficult to deal with; I think on it for awhile then have to put it aside for a few months before my mind feels like picking up that porcupine again.

    It started, as far as I know, back in January of 1996… Over the next years weird things started happening in my dreams. As I’d go to sleep, but still a tiny bit awake, a slideshow would start. Symbols. Flip. Flip. Like I was learning them. But I could never remember them when I woke up. Then came other dreams. Now I see that they were in a logical sequence, but that’s hindsight.

    Then was the horrible one. I was in a spaceship in my ‘dream’ and out a porthole was the earth on fire. I wasn’t supposed to see it. The being screwed up – when they are reading us we can read them too. It was made known to me that this was going to happen. I told them I wanted to be awake for that. They told me they had to ask permission. I told them I want to live my actual life even if it’s something miserable. They came back after a while and told me I could. I understood that people will be removed from earth prior to the incident, asleep, and kept asleep to prevent them from bearing the trauma. This was before I heard of Dr. LaViolette’s book, before Y2K, before the movie Knowing.

  2. David Alexander says:

    Before the recent indications that a superwave is much less likely, during your interview when you discussed the Mayan prophecies you commented that the G2 cloud is arriving very close to the end of the Mayan calendar cycle. Although I can understand how superwaves could be predictably related to the precession of the equinoxes to the extent that the precession of the equinoxes is related to the combined gravitational forces from superwaves over the years, I don’t quite understand how stars nearing Sagittarius A could be related to a predictable cycle. The only way that I can think of in which the superwave cycle might be connected to the orbits of stars would be if during previous superwaves there was a tendency for some stars to be pushed away from the galactic center into elliptical orbits with apogees at similar distances from the galactic center depending on the force of the core explosion in much the same way as a debris disk becomes circular with debris at the same distance from an explosion. Stars that were forced out farther would be moving faster in proportion to the force and would return faster while stars that stayed closer to the galactic center would be moving more slowly and would return more slowly which would mean that more than the usual stars would return to the galactic center at about the same time within a few years or decades of each other and could trigger another superwave because of the buildup of energy in the galactic center between superwaves. After a superwave, it seems that stars that were near Sagittarius A at the time would be pushed far enough away that it would be a long time before many stars could orbit past Sagittarius A again until the stars tended to return together. A period with a lack of stars would then be offset by a period when stars returned together and there would be a period with more than usual stars moving into the galactic center. It seems that it might be hard to see such a trend developing until it happens because many other stars near the galactic center would not have become somewhat synchronized with the superwave cycle by passing near the galactic center during a superwave and many stars would likely be hidden by dust clouds. Is it possible that some type of scenario anything like I have discussed might make it more likely that another star will soon near the galactic center?

    • Paul LaViolette says:

      Yes, I think it is likely that we could soon see another star coming in on a highly elliptical orbit. Keep in mind that we only had the ability to telescopically image these stars in the past 10 years. So we know very little of the history of the entry of high-eccentricity orbit stars. The Crab and Vela pulsars in the pulsar message and the Avebury Manor crop circle seem to indicate a date of 2035 to 2037. So perhaps that will be when the real event happens. Who knows.

    • Paul LaViolette says:

      Your theory is interesting. Superwaves due produce a radial thrusting which could cause a radial oscillation of stars populating the innermost star cluster that surrounds the Galactic core. Of course the idea we are exploring in these postings, that the core is triggered to its active state by a stellar accretion event, is only an hypothesis. The other theory, discussed in my book Subquantum Kinetics is that the core is constantly growing in mass due to internal matter creation and that this causes its gravity potential well to gradually deepen which in turn boosts its level of genic energy production (spontaneous photon blue shifting). When this internal genic energy production reaches a critical level then the core is prone to explode. This could occur because of an internal energy fluctuation or because of a sudden external accretion event.

  3. Paul LaViolette says:

    ruffletheteacher.com commented on May 14, 2014 at 12:32 AM

    “I anxiously await the simulation. Since this cloud could be from the Sag Dwarf Galaxy that is being consumed by Milky Way, I assume the orbit of a Brown dwarf around a central white dwarf could be opposite that of our planet around our sun. This is an important variable.

    The direction of orbit around the parent, the position at pericenter (is it between Sgr A* and the parent star or is the parent star closer to the SMBH) and the ‘sence’ of Sgr A* itself all makes a difference. (The sence of the BH…. What direction does the BH rotate, clockwise or counterclockwise.)

    Hmmmm….. Now that I think about it, G2 is coming in at a high eccentricity. Basically, if Sgr A* is flat on the table, G2 is coming in at almost 90 degrees. So the sence may not matter.

    I find it interesting that Dr LaViollette has so much archeological and historical evidence to suggest that the G2 cloud did cause damage in the past. His own site talks about an event 12,887 years ago. IF the distance to Sgr A* is 25,776 light years, 12,888 is half. Looking for a cause? In modern human history we have not seen a coalescence event at the GC and may not again for hundreds of years. This event would seem to fit the numbers. Even if, statistically, it is a less than one percent chance.”

    No, the G2 cloud is making its first entry toward the GC. It began its inward journey perhaps 100 – 200 years ago. Previous superwaves were most likely due to other binary stars that approached the GC in a similar fashion along high eccentricity orbits and ended up having a component collide with the core.

  4. Paul LaViolette says:

    Kurt Sarrica says: 

    May 11, 2014 at 8:32 pm 


    Thanks for this interesting update on the G2 Cloud status. Regarding the diverse theories of just what type of star or stars may actually be embedded within the G2 Cloud, could you please provide us with a set of criteria which will resolve the question.

    For example, if the G2 Cloud proceeds on its current trajectory without significant accretion of gaseous material into the Saggitarius A*, will this be more indicative of a solitary white dwarf or of a larger main sequence star? If there is a brown dwarf companion to your posited white dwarf star, would this companion be more or less massive than the white dwarf?

    2. Would the distance between these two hypothetical embedded stars determine how much of the G2 Cloud gaseous material actually accretes into Sagittarius A*?

    3. I suppose the key question everyone wants to know is, how much farther away from the galactic core will the G2 Cloud have to progress before you can confidently say that no embedded stars or planets within the G2 Cloud could possibly be stripped away and dive into the Sagittarius A*?

    4. Thank you for your continued research.

    Yours truly,

    Kurt Sarrica>>


    ◦ Paul LaViolette says: 

    May 12, 2014 at 1:45 am

    As explained in the posting, it is the lack of seeing any brightening of the G2 cloud as it approached pericenter that encourages the suggestion that its embedded star is a white dwarf. This decision has nothing to do with whether or not Sgr A* accretes material from the G2 cloud. As mentioned, I will soon add a posting about the G2 cloud trajectory and why it is unlikely there will be any companion body impacting the core.

  5. Paul LaViolette says:

    Marysol Gonzalez Sterling says:
    May 11, 2014 at 8:31 pm 

    Thank you Paul, but if it has a brown dwarf and a white one is this considered enough to create a larger superwave?


    ◦ Paul LaViolette says: 

    May 12, 2014 at 1:37 am 

    No, the chances of a superwave occurring are substantially lower. I have added an additional paragraph to the posting to explain this.

  6. Paul LaViolette says:

    OC says: 

    May 11, 2014 at 6:37 pm 

    “Hi Dr Laviolette OK, I’ll ask the “peanut gallery question” … how does this affect the superwave outcome?”


    ◦ Paul LaViolette says: 

    May 12, 2014 at 1:29 am 

    I have now added a paragraph at the end of the posting to address your question.

  7. Charlie Knoll says:

    I don’t have your email but you can get the old version here (unfortunately without the image):


    • Paul LaViolette says:

      Thank you for the link Charlie. I have now repaired the posting that was corrupted due to problems with the GoDaddy hosting server.

      Also thanks to MarySol who earlier sent a backup copy of this posting.

  8. David says:

    That is a very interesting scenario Dr. LaViolette, and your take on the event is intuitive as usual. But I have some questions with regoards to the reporting of the event by the astronomers involved, ie., If there was no change in the brightness, does this mean that nothing was “Stripped away” from the G2 cloud? It would seem reasonable that if a significant mass were stripped away that there would be less brightness to the the cloud. Another question, is the instance of this probably being a White Dwarf, do White Dwarfs have any more or less instances of being Binary Star systems? And finally, has anyone perchance noticed if the G2 Cloud has divided or spilt? If, say another mass was stripped away, would we see it, if it were only say a Jupiter sized Planet?

    • Paul LaViolette says:

      No, material is likely continually being stripped away from the G2 cloud just as fast as it is being supplied by the embedded white dwarf. As a result, the cloud maintains its constant size because it is in a steady state condition where material in equals material out. The material stripped away most likely is readily blown away by the core’s intense cosmic ray and gas wind. It does not fall into the core as astronomer’s expect with their standard thinking. I predicted this last year. As expected the core has not shown increased X-ray emission from this stripped off gas.

      Yes, there is less chance of white dwarfs having binary companions. I discuss this in the added paragraph at the bottom of the posting.

      So far no one has noticed any companion being stripped away from the G2 cloud. But if it were a jupiter sized planet or even a brown dwarf, it is likely that we would not see it as a separating cloud.

  9. Justin says:

    Hi again Dr. LaViolette,

    Thank you for the further updates. While my wife and i were originally leaning to late spring for a possible collapse event, i also take the Padre’s visions seriously too, as well as your re-calculations (as noted in other articles).

    Also, there is a sort of vision that my wife had a few years back, which might relate. My wife sometimes gets spontaneous messages when she is waking up and in that sort of in between state of fully awake and sleeping. One such message was interesting in that she saw a man, tallish, somewhat gawky looking, largish nose, somewhat on the older side but a bit younger looking than his years, and got the strong impression his name was Paul and that he was important to me on my path in some way. She also got an impression of an important date, she thought it might be his birthday, but it was some date connected to this man and it was July.

    I didn’t connect the dream to you–I already knew about you (she didn’t know much about you, nor what you looked like, etc), and i figured it was some person named Paul that i would meet in person and become friends or associates with. Well, i kept my eyes open and rarely ran into any Pauls, let alone any that seemed important to my spiritual and larger life path.

    A little while ago, after talking to a good friend of mine who is pretty spiritual and intune with inner guidance, about you, your work, and the possibility of the G2 cloud exciting the core, he meditated on it, asked guidance about it and received something about a July date, but no info came with same. He doesn’t know what it means, if anything at all.

    But his meditation message reminded me of the vision that my wife had had some years before. I got an aha intuition that the vision was about you, and since i know you’re born under Scorpio Sun, i definitely know that July is not your birthdate, but maybe it was a clue to when the initial outbursting will start?

    Sometimes i wish guidance was more obvious and concrete–lot’s of times it’s kind of like putting a puzzle together, you get a little bit here, a little bit there. But i know it works on a “need to know basis” and what’s best for our spiritual growth and influence on others.

    One thing i’m fairly certain of though, something big seems likely to happen in the next year. Between both of us, we have received too many messages to doubt a collapse is highly probable in the near future. Some say economic, but generally economic collapses tend to be more drawn out and slower. For whatever reason, a Galactic superwave feels more likely to cause the collapse (which also would be an economic collapse technically as well).

    I still don’t know what to think about the conflagration event that the Padre has seen for later on, but since a couple of our messages centered around us going to caves (as well as “red skies”) at some point after the collapse–i do think it’s possible, maybe even probable, but some part of me thinks, or would like to think, that the 2nd phase could be averted. At least, after the initial collapse i will work towards averting that by trying to help others as much as i’m able.

    Anyways, thank you for your service and dedication. I’m tempted to ask you what your personal feelings and intuitions are about how probable you think a collapse in the near future is, if you have received any personal guidance, etc but being a scientific researcher and public figure to some extent, it’s probably best for you to not go there.

    I guess your very synchronistic meeting with the Padre could be considered a pretty big message or clue from guidance though! I’m curious if the Padre ever told you if his visions were more recent, happened awhile ago, or have been a combo? That might be significant, considering the fluid nature of the future and probable events.

    • Paul LaViolette says:

      Thank you for relating this interesting story of your wife’s dream. I did not know that I give a “gawky” appearance to people in their dreams, nor would I say I have a large nose. Perhaps I had better work more on my dreamworld public appearance. 🙂

      As far as whether an event is imminent, I tend to rely more on the scientific data, and computer simulations, etc. Although Padre Avondios’ prediction indeed makes me a bit concerned.

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