Subquantum Kinetics Predictions and their Subsequent Verification
Prediction No. 1 (1973 – 1978): Subquantum Kinetics predicted that the electric potential field in the core of a subatomic particle should be Gaussian-shaped and should continue outward as a periodic field pattern of diminishing amplitude having a radial wavelength equal to the particle’s Compton wavelength, further that this field pattern should be positively biased in positively charged particles. Prediction published in: 1985 (IJGS), 1994 (Subquantum Kinetics), and 1995 (Beyond the Big Bang).
Verification (2002): Particle scattering form factor data for the proton and neutron is found to be best fit by a model in which the nucleon core electric charge density distribution has characteristics similar to those that subquantum kinetics had predicted. Energy boosting during collision, however, did cause the target nucleons to exhibit a wavelength slightly shorter than had been predicted.
Energy Conservation and Photon Redshifting – prevailing concept (1978): At the time of this prediction, physicists and astronomers generally assume that photon energy is perfectly conserved and that the cosmological redshift is an effect arising from an assumed expansion of space.
Prediction No. 2 (1978): As a basic requirement of its methodology, subquantum kinetics predicted that photons passing through regions of more positive gravitational field potential where the reaction system is subcritical, e.g., intergalactic space, should progressively redshift with the passage of time, that is, undergo a “tired-light effect.” The spectra of distant galaxies should then redshift even in the absence of any net recessional motion.
Verification (1979 – 1986): Dr. LaViolette checks this photon redshifting prediction by comparing the tired-light non-expanding universe model and the expanding universe model (standard Freidman cosmology) to observational data on four different cosmology tests. He demonstrates that the tired-light model consistently makes a closer fit to observational data on all tests. His findings, which were published in the Astrophysical Journal (1986), confirm the subquantum kinetics tired light prediction and the notion that the universe is cosmologically stationary. These findings undermine a key support of the big bang theory. An update of this evidence is presented in Chapter 7 of Subquantum Kinetics.
Energy Conservation and Energy Generation – prevailing concept (1978): At the time of this prediction, physicists and astronomers adhered to the idea that energy is perfectly conserved. Stars are assumed to generate their energy either through nuclear fusion or from heat released from gravitational accretion. Planets are instead thought to acquire their luminosity from stored heat. There is no reason to believe that planets should conform to the stellar mass-luminosity relation.
Prediction No. 3 (1978 – 1979): As a basic requirement of its methodology, subquantum kinetics predicted that photons should progressively blueshift in regions of more negative gravitational field potential where the reaction system is supercritical, e.g., within stars and planets and in interplanetary and interstellar space. It predicted that “genic energy” should be continuously created within all celestial bodies.
Verification (1979 – 1992): Dr. LaViolette tested this genic energy prediction by plotting the mass-luminosity coordinates of the jovian planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, and Uranus) to compare them with the mass-luminosity relation for red dwarf stars and found that both planets and stars conformed to the same relation. Other astronomers had not previously done this because doing so didn’t make sense in the context of the conventional astrophysical paradigm. This conformance suggests that the heat coming from the interiors of planets is produced in the same way as that radiating from the interiors of red dwarf stars, just as subquantum kinetics predicts. He also showed that the genic energy hypothesis predicts a slope for the “planetary stellar M-L relation” similar to the observed slope. In addition, he showed that the upward extension of the M-L relation predicts that about 16% of the Sun’s luminosity should be of genic energy origin, an amount consistent with recent SNO solar neutrino measurements. The required violation of energy conservation is 10 orders of magnitude smaller than what could be observed in laboratory experiments.
Verification (January 1995): Astronomers observing with the Hubble Space Telescope discovered that the star VB10 has a dynamic core, as indicated by the presence of explosive, magnetic-field-driven flares on its surface. VB10 has a mass of about 0.09 solar masses, which indicates that it borders between being a red dwarf and brown dwarf. Conventional theory predicts that this star should be on the border of being dead and hence should not have a strong magnetic field. Subquantum Kinetics, which predicts that its interior should be dynamic and actively evolving genic energy, anticipates these results.
Brown Dwarf Stars – prevailing concept (1985): At the time of this prediction, astronomers do not expect that brown dwarf stars to have any particular mass-luminosity ratio. They are assumed to be stars that are not massive enough to ignite nuclear fusion and hence are merely dead stars that are cooling off.
Prediction No. 4 (1985 – August 1995): Subquantum Kinetics predicted that brown dwarfs should also generate genic energy and hence, like the jovian planets, should lie along the lower main-sequence mass-luminosity relation for red dwarf stars. Paul LaViolette published this prediction on four occasions: 1985 (LaViolette, IJGS, p. 339), 1992 (LaViolette, Physics Essays), 1994 (LaViolette, Subquantum Kinetics, p. 125), and 1995 (LaViolette, Beyond the Big Bang, p. 304).
Verification (November 1995, 1998): Astronomers determine the masses and luminosities of two brown dwarfs GL 229B and G 196-3B. Dr. LaViolette demonstrates that the M-L data points for these brown dwarfs lies along the planetary-stellar M-L relation as he predicted. This indicates that brown dwarfs are not dead stars as previously supposed, but stars that are actively producing genic energy in their interiors.
Interplanetary maser signals – prevailing concept (1985): Maser signals are believed to maintain constant frequencies over interplanetary distances since photon energy is assumed to be perfectly conserved.
Prediction No. 5 (1980): Dr. LaViolette determines the expected magnitude of the hypothesized genic energy photon blueshifting rate by modeling the intrinsic luminosities of the planets. He then predicts that if a maser signal were transponded between two spacecraft separated by 5 AU, the signal should be found to blueshift at the rate of about 1.3 ± 0.65 X 10-18 per second (equivalent to a blueshift rate of 1.1 ± 0.6 X 10-18 per second for signals traveling a 65 AU roundtrip journey. This prediction was published on two occasions: 1985 (LaViolette, IJGS, p. 340) and 1994 (LaViolette, Subquantum Kinetics, p. 135).
Verification (October 1998): A group of scientists at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) publish their discovery that maser signals transponded between the Earth and the Pioneer spacecraft blueshift at a rate of ~ 2.9 ± 0.4 X 10-18 per second. Their value reduces to 2.3 ± 0.4 X 10-18 per second when the propulsive effects of waste heat from the spacecraft power source is taken into account. The predicted blueshift rate is within 2 sigma of the observed rate. LaViolette had discussed his prediction with one member of the JPL group as early as 1980. Although, the JPL team had apparently forgotten about the conversation and chose their own a posteriori interpretation of the phenomenon, conceiving the blueshift to be produced by a mysterious force continually pushing the spacecraft toward the Sun. Their observations nevertheless provide close confirmation of the a priori subquantum kinetics prediction; see paper posted at pioneer.html. For a detailed discussion see the Pioneer effect press release. A chronology of events of the Pioneer effect prediction and subsequent JPL verification is graphically depicted at the end of the press release.
Galactic Evolution – prevailing concept (1979):At the time of this prediction, astronomers believed that galaxies form in various sizes as galactic-sized gas clouds gravitationally condense to form stars. They assume that the size of these galaxies does not change over time except through galaxy mergers. Galaxies in the immediate neighborhood of the Milky Way are assumed to have the same size ratio as young galaxies at cosmological distances.
Prediction No. 6 (1979 – 1994): Subquantum Kinetics predicts that matter is continuously created throughout the universe, with the matter creation rate being highest in the vicinity of already existing matter. Furthermore it predicts that galaxies should progressively grow in size with the passage of time since they are formed by matter being created primarily in their central nucleus and being propelled outward by galactic core explosions. Dr. LaViolette published this prediction on two occasions, in 1985 (LaViolette, IJGS, p. 335) and in 1994 (LaViolette, Subquantum Kinetics, p. 118). Also see LaViolette, Beyond the Big Bang, p. 94.
Verification (July 1995): Observations with the Hubble Space Telescope show that younger, more distant galaxy clusters are dominated by fainter, more compact galaxies and have much fewer of the larger spiral galaxies, as compared with nearby older galaxy clusters.
Galactic Core Energy Source – prevailing concept (1985): At the time of this prediction, the nuclei of active galaxies and quasars are known to contain central masses ranging from millions to billions of solar masses, and astronomers assume that these core masses exist in a collapsed state as black holes. They further assume that the prodigious energy output from these cores is powered from matter being swallowed by these hypothesized black holes. No other means of generating energy is known to explain the immense amount of energy observed to come from these locations.
Prediction No. 7 (1985): Subquantum Kinetics predicts that matter-accreting black holes do not exist. Instead, it predicts the existence of highly massive, very dense celestial bodies of finite size called “mother stars” which continuously and spontaneously produce matter and genic energy in their interiors. LaViolette published his ideas on this on two occasions: 1985 (LaViolette, IJGS, p. 342) and 1994 (LaViolette, Subquantum Kinetics, pp. 143-144).
Verification (January 1995): A group of astronomers led by John Bahcall, observing with the Hubble Space Telescope, discover that 11 out of 15 quasars are devoid of any surrounding material and hence have no matter available to power a black hole hypothetically located at their centers. This supports the subquantum kinetics prediction that such energetic sources are instead powered by energy spontaneously created in their interiors.
Verification (September 1997): Hubble Space Telescope observations of the heart of active galaxy NGC 6251 provide further confirmation of the earlier January 1995 verification. These observations show that this galaxy’s core is swept clear and hence that there should be no matter available to be accreted by a hypothetical central black hole.